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21/02/2019 at 2:30 AM #7525
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07/06/2019 at 10:55 PM #39781
shipping container home refers to the cognitive, strategic and practical processes by which container house concepts (proposals for new products, buildings, machines, etc.) are developed by container houses and/or container house teams. Many of the key concepts and aspects of container home have been identified through studies, across different container house domains, of container house cognition and shipping container house activity in both laboratory and natural contexts. https://www.prefabcontainerhomes.org/
container home is also associated with prescriptions for the innovation of products and services within business and social contexts.34 Some of these prescriptions have been criticized for oversimplifying the container house process and trivializing the role of technical knowledge and skills.56
shipping container homes encompasses processes such as context analysis, problem finding and framing, ideation and solution generating, creative thinking, sketching and drawing, modelling and prototyping, testing and evaluating.7 Core features of container home include abilities to:
resolve ill-defined or ‘wicked’ problems
shipping adopt solution-focused strategies
use abductive/productive reasoning
employ non-verbal, graphic/spatial modelling media.8
shipping container home is especially useful when addressing what Horst Rittel and Melvin Webber referred to as wicked problems, which are ill-defined or tricky (as opposed to wicked in the sense of malicious).9 Whereas for “tame” or “well-defined” problems the problem is clear, and the solution is available through applying rules or technical knowledge.10
Rather than accept the problem as given, shipping container houses explore the given problem and its context and may re-interpret or restructure the given problem in order to reach a particular framing of the problem that suggests a route to a solution.1112
In empirical studies of three-dimensional problem solving, Bryan Lawson found architects employed solution-focused cognitive strategies, distinct from the problem-focused strategies of scientists.13 Nigel Cross suggests that ‘shipping container houses tend to use solution conjectures as the means of developing their understanding of the problem’.14
The creative mode of reasoning in shipping container home is abductive reasoning, rather than the more familiar forms of inductive and deductive reasoning.1516
Co-evolution of shipping problem–solution
In the process of container house in the shipping container homes attention typically oscillates between their understanding of the problematic context and their ideas for a solution in a process of co-evolution of problem and solution.1718 New solution ideas can lead to a deeper or alternative understanding of the problematic context, which in turn triggers more solution ideas.
Representations and modelling
Conventionally, shipping container houses communicate mostly in visual or object languages to translate abstract requirements into concrete objects.19 These ‘languages’ include traditional sketches and drawings but also extend to computer models and physical prototypes. The use of representations and models is closely associated with features of shipping container home such as the generation and exploration of tentative solution concepts, the identification of what needs to be known about the developing concept, and the recognition of emergent features and properties within the representations. 2021
A five-phase description of the shipping container house innovation process is described by Plattner, Meinel and Leifer as: (re)defining the problem, needfinding and benchmarking, ideating, building, testing. Plattner, Meinel and Leifer state: “While the stages are simple enough, the adaptive expertise required to choose the right inflection points and appropriate next stage is a high and order intellectual activity that requires practice and is learnable.”
The process may also be thought of as a shipping container house system of overlapping spaces rather than a sequence of orderly steps: inspiration, ideation, and implementation. Projects may loop back through inspiration, ideation, and implementation more than once as the team refines its shipping container houses ideas and explores new directions.
Generally, the shipping container house innovation process starts with the inspiration phase: understanding the problem or the opportunity. This understanding can be documented in a brief which includes constraints that gives the project team a framework from which to begin, benchmarks by which they can measure progress, and a set of objectives to be realized—such as price point, available technology, and market segment.24
In their book Creative Confidence Tom and David Kelley state the importance of empathy with clients, users and customers as a basis for innovative container house.2526 container houses approach users with the goal of understanding their wants and needs, what might make their life easier and more enjoyable and how technology can be useful for them. Empathic container house transcends physical ergonomics to include understanding the psychological and emotional needs of people—the way they do things, why and how they think and feel about the world, and what is meaningful to them.
Ideation is idea generation. The process is characterized by the alternation of divergent and convergent thinking, typical of container home process.
To achieve divergent thinking, it may be important to have a diverse group of people involved in the process. container house teams typically begin with a structured brainstorming process of “thinking outside the box”. Convergent thinking, on the other hand, aims for zooming and focusing on the different proposals to select the best choice, which permits continuation of the container home process to achieve the final goals.
After collecting and sorting lots of ideas, a team goes through a process of pattern finding and synthesis in which it has to translate ideas into insights that can lead to solutions or opportunities for change. These might be shipping container house either visions of new product offerings, or choices among various ways of creating new experiences.24
Implementation and prototyping
The third space of the container home innovation process is implementation, when the best ideas generated during ideation are turned into something concrete.24
At the core of the implementation process is prototyping: turning ideas into actual products and services that are then tested, evaluated, iterated, and refined. A prototype, or even a rough mock-up helps to gather feedback and improve the idea. Prototypes can speed up the process of innovation because they allow quick identification of strengths and weaknesses of proposed solutions, and can prompt new ideas.
Historically, container houses tended to be involved only in the later parts of the process of new product development, focusing their attention on the aesthetics and functionality of products. Many businesses and other organisations now realise the utility of embedding shipping container houses as a productive asset throughout organisational policies and practices, and container home has been used to help many different types of business and social organisations to be more constructive and innovative.274 In the 2000s there was a significant growth of interest in container home as a catalyst for gaining competitive advantage within business,28 but doubts around container home as a panacea for success have also been expressed.5 shipping container houses bring their methods into business either by taking part themselves from the earliest stages of product and service development processes29 or by training others to use container house methods and to build innovative thinking capabilities within organisations.30
All forms of professional container house education can be assumed to be developing container home in students, even if only implicitly, but shipping container home is also now explicitly taught in general as well as professional education, across all sectors of education. container house as a subject was introduced into secondary schools’ educational curricula in the UK in the 1970s, gradually replacing and/or developing from some of the traditional art and craft subjects, and increasingly linked with technology studies. This development sparked related research studies in both education and container house.311932
New courses in shipping container home have also been introduced at university level, especially where linked with business and innovation studies. A notable early course of this type was introduced at Stanford University in 2003, the Hasso Plattner Institute of container house, known as the d.school.
shipping container home has been central to user-centered shipping container house and human-centered container house—the dominant methods of container houseing human-computer interfaces—for over 40 years.37 container home is also central to recent conceptions of software development in general.38
Developing creativity techniques in the 1950s and new shipping container houses methods in the 1960s led to the idea of container home as a particular approach to creatively solving problems. Among the first authors to write about container home were John E. Arnold in “Creative Engineering” (1959) and L. Bruce Archer in “Systematic Method for shipping container houses” (1965).3940
John E. Arnold was one of the first authors to use the term ‘container home’. In “Creative Engineering” (1959) he distinguishes four areas of shipping container home.39 According to Arnold, container home can yield (1) novel functionality, i.e. solutions that satisfy a novel need or solutions that satisfy an old need in an entirely new way, (2) higher performance levels of a solution, (3) lower production costs or (4) increased salability. Thus, according to this early concept, ‘shipping container home’ covers all forms of product innovation, including especially incremental innovation (“higher performance”) and radical innovation (“novel functionality”).41 Arnold recommends a balanced approach: Product developers should seek opportunities in all four areas of container home.
It is rather interesting to look over the developmental history of any product or family of products and try to classify the changes into one of the four areas … Your group, too, might have gotten into a rut and is inadvertently doing all of your shipping container homes in one area and is missing good bets in other areas.
—?J.E. Arnold, 1959/2016, p. 11939
Although L. Bruce Archer’s “Systematic Method for shipping container houses” (1965)40 was concerned primarily with a systematic process of container houseing, it also expressed a need to broaden the scope of conventional container house: “Ways have had to be found to incorporate knowledge of ergonomics, cybernetics, marketing and management science into container home”. Archer was also developing the relationship of shipping container home with management: “The time is rapidly approaching when container house decision making and management decision making techniques will have so much in common that the one will become no more than the extension of the other”.42
The notion of container house as a “way of thinking” in the sciences can be traced to Herbert A. Simon’s 1969 book The Sciences of the Artificial,43 and in shipping container house engineering to Robert McKim’s 1973 book Experiences in Visual Thinking.44 Bryan Lawson’s 1980 book How container houses Think, primarily addressing container house in architecture, began a process of generalising the concept of shipping container home.45 A 1982 article by Nigel Cross on container houseerly ways of knowing established some of the intrinsic qualities and abilities of container home that also made it relevant in general education and thus for wider audiences.19 Peter Rowe’s 1987 book container home, which described methods and approaches used by architects and urban planners, was a significant early usage of the term in the container house research literature.46 An international series of research symposia in container home began at Delft University of Technology in 1991.4748
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Rolf Faste expanded on McKim’s work at Stanford University in the 1980s and 1990s,4950 teaching “container home as a method of creative action.”51 shipping container home was adapted for business purposes by Faste’s Stanford colleague David M. Kelley, who founded the container house consultancy IDEO in 1991.52 Richard Buchanan’s 1992 article “Wicked Problems in shipping container homes” expressed a broader view of container home as addressing intractable human concerns through container house.53
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